The First Enemies List

On June 27, 1973, the Senate Watergate Committee released the first White House Enemies List in two parts, a top 20 list for special attention and another list of about 200 "Political Opponents" organized in categories. Together, these two lists have become widely know as "Nixon's Enemies List" or "Nixon's First Enemies List" (The second "Enemies List," prepared in September 1972 would not be made public until December 1973).

Only the first 11 names here can be confidently called an Enemies List without quotes. Chief White House Counsel Charles Colson selected the names himself (with blue checkmarks) from a list of 20 (the "Original List") prepared by George Bell and dated June 24, 1971. (A twelfth checkmark was crossed out.) This corresponds to John Dean's request in his August 16, 1971 "Dealing with our Political Enemies" memo which sought "not more than ten" names as targets for concentration. This is the only list that can be said to have been conceived, compiled, and approved as an Enemies List. The other lists that were later published in newspaper articles are usually called "Enemies Lists" with quotation marks. They were part of the "Political Enemies Project" for consideration, but not necessarily inclusion in any official list. In fact, the Congressional investigation into Nixon's misuse of the IRS found no unusual audit activity for the names collected in the "Opponents List and Political Enemies Project."

Special Assistant George Bell, the original compiler, died in 1973 after a long illness and never testified about why he ever started the list.

The story of this first list broke on June 27, 1973 during Congressional Watergate testimony and was a major news story for several days.

The Top 20
(or "Original" List)

Name as originally listedOriginal Comment
1Arnold M. PickerUnited Artists Corporation, 929 Seventh Avenue, New York, N.Y.
2Alexander E. Barkannational director of A.F.L.-C.I.O.'s Committee on Political Education, Washington, D.C.
3Ed Guthmanmanaging editor, L.A. Times
4Maxwell DaneDoyle, Dane and Bernbach, New York
5Charles DysonDyson-Kissner Corporation, New York
6Howard SteinDreyfus Corporation, New York
7Allard LowensteinLong Island, New York
8Morton Halperinleading executive at Common Cause
9Leonard WoodcockUAW, Detroit, Michigan
10S. Sterling Munro, Jr.Senator Jackson's aide, 711 Lamberton Drive, Silver Spring, Md.
11Bernard T. FeldPresident, Council for a Livable World
12Sidney DavidoffNew York City, Lindsay's top personal aide
13John ConyersCongressman, Detroit
14Samuel M. LambertPresident, National Education Association
15Stewart Rawlings MottMott Associates, New York
16Ron DellumsCongressman, California
17Daniel SchorrColumbia Broadcasting System, Washington
18S. Harrison Dogole2011 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
19Paul NewmanCalifornia
20Mary McGrory2710 Macomb St., Washington columnist


'Political Opponents'

Name as originally listedCategory
1Birch BayhSenators
2J. W. FulbrightSenators
3Fred R. HarrisSenators
4Harold HughesSenators
5Edward M. KennedySenators
6George McGovernSenators
7Walter MondaleSenators
8Edmund MuskieSenators
9Gaylord NelsonSenators
10William ProxmireSenators
11Bella AbzugMembers of the House
12William R. AndersonMembers of the House
13John BrademasMembers of the House
14Father Robert F. DrinanMembers of the House
15Robert KastenmeierMembers of the House
16Wright PatmanMembers of the House
17Shirley ChisholmBlack congressmen
18William ClayBlack congressmen
19George CollinsBlack congressmen
20John ConyersBlack congressmen
21Ronald DellumsBlack congressmen
22Charles DiggsBlack congressmen
23Augustus HawkinsBlack congressmen
24Ralph MetcalfBlack congressmen
25Robert N.C. NixBlack congressmen
26Parren MitchellBlack congressmen
27Charles RangelBlack congressmen
28Louis StokesBlack congressmen
29John V. Lindsay, Mayor, New York CityMiscellaneous politicos
30Eugene McCarthy, former U.S. SenatorMiscellaneous politicos
31George Wallace, Governor, AlabamaMiscellaneous politicos
32Black Panthers, Hughie NewtonOrganizations
33Brookings Institution, Lesley Gelb and othersOrganizations
34Business Executives Move for VN Peace--Henry Niles, Nat. Chmn, Vincent McGee, Exec. DirectorOrganizations
35Committee for an Effective Congress, Russell D. HemenwayOrganizations
36Common Cause, John Gardner, Morton Halperin, Charles Goodell, Walter HickelOrganizations
37COPE, Alexander E. BarkanOrganizations
38Council for a Livable World, Bernard T. Feld, Prof. Physics, MITOrganizations
39Farmers Union, NFOOrganizations
40Institute of Policy Study, Richard Barnet, Marcus RaskinOrganizations
41National Economic Council, Inc.Organizations
42National Education Association, Sam M. Lambert, PresidentOrganizations
43National Student Association, Charles Palmer, PresidentOrganizations
44National Welfare Rights Organization, George WileyOrganizations
45Potomac Associates, William WattsOrganizations
46SANE, Sanford GottliebOrganizations
47Southern Christian Leadership, Ralph AbernathyOrganizations
48Third National Convocation on the Challenge of Building Peace, Robert V. Roosa, ChairmanOrganizations
49Businessmen's Educational FundOrganizations
50Karl Feller, Pres. Internat. Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery Workers, CincinnatiLabor
51Harold J. Gibbons, International Vice Pres., TeamstersLabor
52A. F. Grospiron, Pres., Oil, Chemical & Atomic Workers International Union, DenverLabor
53Matthew Guinan, Pres., Transport Workers Union of America, New York CityLabor
54Paul Jennings, Pres. International Union of Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers, D. C.Labor
55Herman D. Kenin, Vice Pres., AFL-CIO, D. C.Labor
56Lane Kirkland, Secretary-Treasurer, AFL-CIO (but we must deal with him)Labor
57Frederick O'Neal, Pres., Actors and Artists of America, New York CityLabor
58William Pollock, Pres., Textile Workers Union of America, New York CityLabor
59Jacob Potofsky, General Pres., Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, New York CityLabor
60Leonard Woodcock, President, United Auto Workers, DetroitLabor
61Jerry Wurf, International President, American Federal, State, County and Municipal Employees, Washington, D. C.Labor
62Nathaniel Goldfinger, AFL-CIOLabor
63I. W. Abel, SteelworkersLabor
64Jack Anderson, columnist, "Washington Merry-Go-Round"Media
65Jim Bishop, author, columnist, King Features SyndicateMedia
66Thomas Braden, columnist, Los Angeles Times SyndicateMedia
67D.J.R. Bruckner, Los Angeles Times SyndicateMedia
68Marquis Childs, chief Washington correspondent, St. Louis Post DispatchMedia
69James Deakin, White House Correspondent, St. Louis Post DispatchMedia
70James Doyle, Washington StarMedia
71Richard Dudman, St. Louis Post DispatchMedia
72William Eaton, Chicago Daily NewsMedia
73Rowland Evans, Jr., syndicated columnist, Publishers HallMedia
74Saul Friedmann, Knight Newspapers, syndicated columnistMedia
75Clayton Fritchey, syndicated columnist, Washington correspondent, HarpersMedia
76George Frazier, Boston GlobeMedia
77Pete Hamill, New York PostMedia
78Michael Harrington, author and journalist; Member, Executive Comm. Socialist partyMedia
79Sydney Harris, columnist, drama critic and writer of 'Strictly Personal,' syndicated Publishers HallMedia
80Robert Healy, Boston GlobeMedia
81William Hines, Jr., journalist; science and education, Chicago Sun TimesMedia
82Stanley Karnow, foreign correspondent, Washington PostMedia
83Ted Knap, syndicated columnist, New York Daily NewsMedia
84Edwin Knoll, ProgressiveMedia
85Morton Kondracke, Chicago Sun TimesMedia
86Joseph Kraft, syndicated columnist, Publishers HallMedia
87James Laird, Philadelphia InquirerMedia
88Max Lerner, syndicated columnist, New York Post; author, lecturer, professor.Media
89Stanley Levey, Scripps HowardMedia
90Flora Lewis, syndicated columnist on economicsMedia
91Stuart Loory, Los Angeles TimesMedia
92Mary McGrory, syndicated columnist on New LeftMedia
93Frank Mankiewicz, syndicated columnist, Los Angeles TimesMedia
94James Millstone, St. Louis Post DispatchMedia
95Martin Nolan, Boston GlobeMedia
96Ed Guthman, L.A. TimesMedia
97Thomas O'Neill, Baltimore SunMedia
98John Pierson, Wall Street JournalMedia
99William Prochnau, Seattle TimesMedia
100James Reston, New York TimesMedia
101Carl Rowan, syndicated columnist, Publishers HallMedia
102Warren Unna, Washington Post, NETMedia
103Harriet Van Horne, columnist, New York PostMedia
104Milton Viorst, reporter, author, writerMedia
105James Wechsler, New York PostMedia
106Tom Wicker, New York TimesMedia
107Gary Wills, syndicated columnist, author of "Nixon-Agonistes."Media
108The New York TimesMedia
109Washington PostMedia
110St. Louis Post DispatchMedia
111Jules Duscha, WashingtonianMedia
112Robert Manning, Editor AtlanticMedia
113John Osborne, New RepublicMedia
114Richard Rovere, New YorkerMedia
115Robert Sherrill, NationMedia
116Paul Samuelson, NewsweekMedia
117Julian Goodman, Chief Executive Officer, NBCMedia
118John Macy, Jr., Pres., Public Broadcasting Corporation; former Civil Service Comm.Media
119Marvin Kalb, CBSMedia
120Daniel Schorr, CBSMedia
121Lem Tucker, NBCMedia
122Sander Vanocur, NBCMedia
123Carol Channing, actress.Celebrities
124Bill Cosby, actor.Celebrities
125Jane Fonda, actress.Celebrities
126Steve McQueen, actor.Celebrities
127Joe Namath, New York Giants; businessman; actor.Celebrities
128Paul Newman, actor.Celebrities
129Gregory Peck, actor.Celebrities
130Tony Randall, actor.Celebrities
131Barbra Streisand, actress.Celebrities
132Dick Gregory [comedian].Celebrities
133Charles B. Beneson, President, Beneson Realty Co.Businessmen
134Nelson Bengston, President, Bengston & Co.Businessmen
135Holmes Brown, Vice President, Public Relations, Continental Can Co.Businessmen
136Benjamin Buttenweiser, Limited Partner, Kuhn Loeb & Co.Businessmen
137Lawrence G. Chait, Chairman, Lawrence G. Chait & Co., IncBusinessmen
138Ernest R. Chanes, President, Consolidated Water Conditioning Co.Businessmen
139Maxwell Dane, Chairman, Exec. Committee, Doyle, Dane & Bernbach, Inc.Businessmen
140Charles H. Dyson, Chairman, The Dyson-Kissner Corp.Businessmen
141Norman Eisner, President, Lincoln Graphic Arts.Businessmen
142Charles B. Finch, Vice President, Alleghany Power System, Inc.Businessmen
143Frank Heineman, President, Men's Wear International.Businessmen
144George Hillman, President, Ellery Products Manufacturing Co.Businessmen
145Bertram Lichtenstein, President, Delton Ltd.Businessmen
146William Manealoff, President, Concord Steel Corp.Businessmen
147Gerald McKee, President, McKee, Berger, Mansueto.Businessmen
148Paul Milstein, President, Circle Industries Corp.Businessmen
149Stewart R. Mott, Stewart R. Mott, Associates.Businessmen
150Lawrence S. Phillips, President, Phillips-Van Heusen Corp.Businessmen
151David Rose, Chairman, Rose Associates.Businessmen
152Julian Roth, Senior Partner, Emery Roth & Sons.Businessmen
153William Ruder, President, Ruder & Finn, Inc.Businessmen
154Si Scharer, President, Scharer Associates, Inc.Businessmen
155Alfred P. Slaner, President, Kayser-Roth Corp.Businessmen
156Roger Sonnabend, Chairman, Sonesta International Hotels.Businessmen
157Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace and New National Priorities Cont:Business Additions
158Morton Sweig, President. National Cleaning ContractorsBusiness Additions
159Alan V. Tishman, Exec. VP, Tishman Realty & Construction Co., Inc.Business Additions
160Ira D. Wallach, President, Gottesman & Co., Inc.Business Additions
161George Weissman, President, Philip Morris Corp.Business Additions
162Ralph Weller, President, Otis Elevator CompanyBusiness Additions
163Clifford Alexander, Jr., Member, Equal Opportunity Comm.; LBJ's Spec. Assistant.Business Additions
164Hugh Calkins, Cleveland lawyer, member, Harvard Corporation.Business Additions
165Ramsey Clark, partner, Weiss, Goldberg, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison; former Attorney General.Business Additions
166Lloyd Cutler, lawyer, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, D.C.Business Additions
167Henry L. Kimelman, chief fund raiser for McGovern; Pres., Overview Group.Business Additions
168Raymond Lapin, former Pres., FNMA; corporation executive.Business Additions
169Hans F. Loeser, Chairman, Boston Lawyers' Vietnam Committee.Business Additions
170Robert McNamara, President, World Bank; former Secretary of Defense.Business Additions
171Hans Morgenthau, former US. Attorney in New York CityBusiness Additions
172Victor Palmieri, lawyer, business consultant, real estate exec., Los Angeles.Business Additions
173Arnold Picker, Muskie's chief fund raiser; Chmn. Exec. Comm., United Artists.Business Additions
174Robert S. Pirie, Harold Hughes' chief fund raiser; Boston lawyer.Business Additions
175Joseph Rosenfield, Harold Hughes' money man; retired Des Moines lawyer.Business Additions
176Henry Rowen, Pres., Rand Corp., former Asst. Director of Budget (LBJ)Business Additions
177R. Sargent Shriver, Jr.Business Additions
178Theodore Sorensen, lawyer, Weiss, Goldberg, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, New York.Business Additions
179Ray Stark, Broadway producer.Business Additions
180Howard Stein, President and Director, Dreyfus Corporation.Business Additions
181Milton Semer, Chairman, Muskie Election Committee; lawyer, Semer and Jacobsen.Business Additions
182George H. Talbot, Pres., Charlotte Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. ; headed anti-VN ad.Business Additions
183Arthur Taylor, Vice President, International Paper Company.Business Additions
184Jack Valenti, President, Motion Picture Association.Business Additions
185Paul Warnke, Muskie financial supporter, former Asst. Secy. of Defense.Business Additions
186Thomas J. Watson, Jr., Muskie financial supporter; Chmn., IBM.Business Additions
187Michael Ellis De Bakey, Chmn., Dept. Surgery, Baylor University; Surgeon-in-chief, Ben Taub General Hospital, TexasBusiness Additions
188Derek Curtis Bok, Dean, Harvard Law School.Business Additions
189Kingman Brewster, Jr., President, Yale University.Business Additions
190McGeorge Bundy, President, Ford Foundation.Business Additions
191Avram Noam Chomsky, Professor of Modern Languages, MIT.Business Additions
192Daniel Ellsberg, Professor, MIT.Business Additions
193George Drennen Fischer, Member, Executive Committee. National Education Assn.Business Additions
194J. Kenneth Galbraith, Professor of Economics, Harvard.Business Additions
195Patricia Harris, educator, lawyer, former U.S. ambassador; Chmn Welfare Committee Urban League.Business Additions
196Walter Heller, Regents Professor of Economics.Business Additions
197Edwin Land, Professor of Physics, MIT.Business Additions
198Herbert Ley, Jr., former FDA Commissioner; Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard.Business Additions
199Matthew Stanley Meselson, Professor of Biology, Harvard.Business Additions
200Lloyd N. Morrisett, Professor and Associate Dir., Education Program, U. of Calif.Business Additions
201Joseph Rhodes, Jr., Fellow, Harvard; Member, Scranton Comm. on Campus Unrest.Business Additions
202Bayard Rustin, civil rights activist; Dir., A. Philip Randolph Institute, New York.Business Additions
203David Selden, President, American Federation of Teachers.Business Additions
204Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Professor of Humanities, City University of New York.Business Additions
205Jeremy Stone, Director, Federation of American Scientists.Business Additions
206Jerome Wiesner, President, MIT.Business Additions
207Samuel M. Lambert, Pres., National Education Assn.Business Additions